The latin letter f is used in mathematics to represent the name of a generic mathematical function
Symbol  Format  Data 

f  Unicode 

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A function takes input and produces output. The idea is a useful way to abstract away complexity and, especially in the age of computers, is a practical tool to solve problems.
The Latin Alphabet is a collection of 26 symbols that form the basis of the English language. The alphabet's symbols are used throughout mathematics to represent variables, constants, and coeffecients.
The capital Latin letter F is used in mathematics to represent the antiderivative of a function.